De mirabilibus auscultationibus auctor ignotus Mitteis, Chr. Mitteis and U. Meiggs and D. MacDonald and G. Gesammelte Schriften , 8 vols. Monumentum Ancyranum Mon. Morel ; 2nd edn. Adelsparteien F. Gauly, L. Musonius Rufus MW M. McCrum and A. Merkelbach and M. Furumark, Mycenaean Pottery Myth. Mythographi Vaticani , ed. Bode Back to top Nachr. Naevius, fragmenta comoediarum Nash, Pict. Rome E. Nash, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Rome —2; 2nd edn.
Eclogae Nep. Timotheus [ Neue ] Jahrb. Preminger and T. Brogan eds. Theriaca Nic. Nilsson, Griechische Feste v. Ausschluss d. Nonius Nonnus, Dion. Nonnus, Dionysiaca Norden, Ant. Norden, Die antike Kunstprosa, vom 6. Zeit d. Renaissance , repr. Novellae Nov. Novellae Theodosianae NP. Cary and others eds. Hammond and H. Scullard eds. Cross and E. Livingstone, 2nd edn. Ogden ed. Livy 1—5 R. Olivieri, Frammenti della commedia greca e del mimo nella Sicilia e nella Magna Grecia , 2nd edn.
Opuscula Archaeologica —52 Op. Origen, Contra Celsum Oros. Orosius Orph. Lithica Ostwald, Popular Sovereignty M.
Tristia Overbeck J. Overbeck, Die antiken Schriftquellen zur Geschichte d. Amherst Papyri —1 Pan. Parker, The Roman Legions , 2nd edn. Parodorum Epicorum Graecorum reliquiae , vol. Brandt and C. Wachsmuth Paroemiogr. Corpus Paroemiographorum Graecorum , ed. Leutsch and P. Schneidewin Parth. Paulus, Sent. Iulius Paulus, Sententiae Paus. Pausanias PB P. Poralla and A. Berlin Papyri PBrem. Die Bremer Papyri , ed. Wilcken ; repr. Papyri bruxellenses graeci 1: Papyrus du nome Prosopite, Nos.
Nachtergael ; 2: No. Huys For PBrux. Cairo Zeno C. Edgar, Zenon Papyri , 4 vols. Elephantine Papyri Peripl. Periplus Maris Rubri Pers. Persius Peter, HRRel. Peter, Historicorum Romanorum Reliquiae , vol. Satyrica Pf.
Pfeiffer PF R. Comparetti and G. Vitelli —15; repr. Pfuhl, Malerei u. Zeichnung d. Griechen , 3 vols. Jouguet, BCH , ff. Preisendanz and others eds. Dikaiomata , ed. Philon, Belopoeica PHeid. Papyri Herculanenses ; see Catalogo dei papyri ercolanesi and M. Capasso, Manuale di papirologia ercolanese Pherec. Pherecydes PHerm. Zwei Landlisten aus dem Hermupolites , ed. Sijpesteijn and K. Worp PHib.
Cohn and P. Legatio ad Gaium Philoch. Philochorus Philol. Philologus Suppl. Philologus , Supplement Philostr. Philologische Untersuchungen Phil. Philologische Wochenschrift Phld. Philodemus Phlegon, Mir. Phlegon, Miracula PHolm. Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis , ed. Lagercrantz Phot. Bibliotheca PIand. Pickard-Cambridge, Dithyramb, Tragedy and Comedy , 2nd edn. Webster Pind.
Pindar ed. Paeanes Pindar's Poetry C. Morgan and S. Hornblower eds. Klebs and H. Dessau —8 ; 2nd edn. Groag, A. Philippson and E. Timaeus Platner—Ashby S. Platner and T. Plato Comicus Platon. De differentia comoediarum Plaut. Trinummus Pleid. Leemans —85 PLG T. Bergk, Poetae Lyrici Graeci ; repr.
Epistulae ad Traianum PLips. Griechische Urkunden der Papyrussammlung zu Leipzig , ed. Vollmer, 1 emendavit Morel 3 PLond. Catalogue of the Literary Papyri in the British Museum , ed. Jones and others ; 2 and 3, ed. Martindale —92 PLund. Quomodo adulescens poetas audire debeat Vit. Timoleon [Plut. Papiri Milanesi —67 PMil. Papri della R. Byzantinische Papyri in der Papyrussammlung der K. Onomasticon Polyaenus, Strat. Polyaenus, Strategemata Polyb. Polybius Pompon. Pomponius Porph. Vita Plotini POsl. Papyri Osloenses —36 Pow. Powell and Barber, New Chapters J.
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Ancient Rome - Wikipedia
Powell, Collectanea Alexandrina POxy. Diels, Poetarum Philosophorum Graecorum Fragmenta praef. Preller, Griechische Mythologie , 4th edn. Robert Prisc. Pritchett, The Greek State at War 5 vols. In Platonis Timaeum commentarii Procop. De bello Vandalico Proc. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society Progr. Programm Prop. Propertius Prudent. Peristephanon PRyl. Papyrus de la Sorbonne 1, nos. Cadell PStras. Tebtunis Papyri —76 Ptol. Tetrabiblos PVat. Norsa and G.
Vitelli PVindob. Oates, A. Samuel, C. Welles eds. Institutio oratoria Quint. Pauly, G. Wissowa, and W. Rendiconti d. Istituto Lombardo di scienze e lettere Rend. Rendiconti della reale accademia dei Lincei , 6th ser. Rendiconti della pontificia accademia romana di archeologia Rer. Keller, Rerum naturalium scriptores Graeci minores Rev. Revue biblique Rev. Revue historique Rev. Revue de l'histoire des religions Rev.
Dieterich, R. Malten, O. Weinreich, L. Rhetorica ad Herennium Rhet. Ancient Rome L. Rivista di archeologia cristiana Riv. Rivista di filologia Riv. Rhodes and R. Robert, Opera Minora Selecta , 7 vols. Greek Thought Rohde, Psyche E. Rohde, Psyche , trans. Beard, J. North, and S. Price, Religions of Rome , 2 vols. Rose, Handbook of Greek Mythology , 6th edn. RRC M. Rumpf, Malerei und Zeichnung Rut. Sachs and H.
Bellum Iugurthinum Satyr. Vita Euripidis SB F. Schanz, Geschichte d. Schmitt ed. Scholia Bernensia ad Vergilii bucolica et georgica , ed. Hagen Schol. Scholia Bobiensia Schol. Scholia Cruquiana Schol. Scholia Florentina in Callimachum Schroeder, Nov. Vermes, F. Millar, and M. Scolia Anonyma in Diehl's Anth.
Scolia Attica in Diehl's Anth. Scullard, Roman Politics — bc ; 2nd edn. Semonides Sen. Suasoriae Sen. De tranquillitate animi Serv. Praefatio Serv. Shackleton Bailey ed. SIG see Syll. Punica Simon. Simonides Simpl. Wien Sitzungsberichte der Akad. Socrates, Historia ecclesiastica Solin. Solinus Soph. Trachiniae Sor. Soranus, Gynaeceia Sozom. Hammer, Rhetores graeci ex recognitione Leonardi Spengel : 2nd edn. Spengel, Rhet. Spengel, Rhetores Graeci , 3 vols. Studia et Documenta Historiae et Iuris Stud. Studi Etruschi Stud. Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des Altertums Stud. Studi italiani di filologia classica Stud.
Studia Theologica Studi stor. Reliquiae , ed. Vita Lucani Sumner, Orators G. Mette, Supplementum Aeschyleum Supp. Lloyd-Jones and P. Parsons eds. Daniel and F. Maltomini eds. Susemihl, Geschichte d. Alexandriner-Zeit —2; repr. Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum , 3rd edn. Symbolum Symb. Symbolae Osloenses Symb. Danielsson Symbolae Philologicae O. Danielsson octogenario dicatae Syme R. Relationes Back to top Tab. Historiae TAM E. Tarn, Alexander the Great ; repr.
Phormio Tert. Kroll and F. Skutsch —26, vol. Reynolds ed. Nauck, Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta , 2nd edn. Snell Them. Themistius, Orationes Theoc. Idylls Theoph. Ad Autol. Theophilus, Ad Autolycum Theophr. De sensibus Theopomp. Theognis Thomson, Hist. Thucydides Tib. Tibullus Timoth. Tod, Greek Historical Inscriptions vol. Snell, R.
An Edict for the Caracallan Empire
Kannicht, S. Radt eds. Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta , 6 vols. Tyrrell and L. Purser eds. Tullius Cicero , 7 vols. Ueberweg, Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie , rev. Flashar ; vol. The main classes of texts currently omitted are: Greek rescripts and letters in papyri and inscriptions , most easily accessed in the corpus as published in J. Anastasiadis and G. There exists a small number of ancient translations into Latin in most cases BACK into Latin from the Greek versions most notably in Cassiodorus's Historia Tripartita , and these have been included in the database.
Orthography Orthography is not entirely consistent, given the varied practices of editions used, especially where a text has a single witness e. When searching the database, therefore, it is advisable to use variant spellings to ensure that all relevant examples are found; e.
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B and V , and ae and e also tend to be interchangeable. All upper case V 's and U 's have been rendered V , all lower case v 's and u 's have become u. For the purposes of web-searches, the database regards all Vv 's and Uu 's as interchangeable. Translations It has not been an aim of the project to provide English translations for all texts, although some scattered translations have been included.
Pharr's Theodosian Code Princeton, for those texts in the table of Laws It is also planned to add to the number of translations available, both with some freshly done and with some taken from out-of-copyright publications. This code is at the core of the main database material. Owing to the survival of some early manuscripts R and V , much of the code Books VI-XVI has been preserved intact, but the first five books have to be reconstructed and are still incomplete on the basis of the Breviary of Alaric [whose manuscripts include an important manuscript A augmented for Book I from a full Theodosian text], and a fragmentary palimpsest T.
The code is known to and used by scholars primarily in the grand edition of Mommsen , Berlin, vol. He only made a few suggestions for restorations elsewhere in the Code, for which see his article in ZSS 41 These more recent texts are: 1 P. Petrucci et al. VI in. L81; now published as F. Rupprecht ed. This is a fragment of an otherwise unknown constitution of Arcadius and Honorius, probably from one of the first five incomplete books. The major part of the Breviary of Alaric published by the Visigothic king Alaric II in consists of a reduced Theodosian Code and the post-Theodosian Novels with explanatory interpretationes.
The Breviary has not had a proper edition since that of G. Aalen [but see also M. Conrat, Breviarium Alaricianum Leipzig, ; repr. Aalen ], although an edition in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica has long been planned. The main draw-back is that the remaining sections of the Breviary the epitomes of Gaius, Paul, Papinian, and the Gregorian and Hermogenian Codes with their interpretationes have to be chased across the volumes of the pre-Justinianic collections listed below.
The Justinian Code The Justinian Code was compiled on the instructions of the emperor Justinian and promulgated in , but following the ferment of legal activity that produced both the Digest and a great deal of new legislation, a second edition was published in , and this is the edition which survives, although not intact. For its earlier material chronologically speaking , the Justinian Code made use of three pre-existing codes Gregorian, Hermogenian, Theodosian , which it superseded.
The Justinian Code is also the principal witness to the contents of the lost Gregorian and Hermogenian Codes mainly third-century rescripts , which otherwise survive as meagre shattered fragments cannibalized into other late antique legal works. In the east, the code was quickly translated into Greek and then superseded by the Basilica late IX C. Although later re-expanded, both by mediaeval jurists and by more recent textual scholars, it remains something of a hotch-potch reconstruction. Goldbach, As with the Theodosian Code, there have been few significant additions to manuscript attestation of this code since the production of its last important modern edition i.
There are two papyrus witnesses to the lost first edition of P. XV [an index to part of Book I]; P. Amelotti and L. Migliardi Zingale, Le costituzioni giustinianee nei papiri e nelle epigrafi 2nd ed. Two folios of an XI C. Note also that a small fragment of a sixth-century manuscript from Cologne Colon. In terms of new information about the Code, the most important of these are the Oxyrhynchus and Vallicelliana items. The Collectio Avellana The Collectio Avellana is a collection of imperial and papal letters dating between the fourth and sixth centuries, probably assembled in its present form late in the reign of Pope Vigilius after The standard edition is by O.
Collections of pre-Justinianic sources: There exist three similar modern collections of the surviving pre-Justinianic legal works, although they do not contain identical selections of material. In general the database texts follow the Collectio , which is usually gives the fullest apparatus and clearest exposition. The differences between the editions only really show in the more fragmentary texts, as with parts of the Fragmenta Vaticana.
The support staff at such a facility included muleteers, secretaries, blacksmiths, cartwrights, a veterinarian, and a few military police and couriers. The distance between mansiones was determined by how far a wagon could travel in a day. Mules were the animal most often used for pulling carts, traveling about 4 mph. As an example of the pace of communication, it took a messenger a minimum of nine days to travel to Rome from Mainz in the province of Germania Superior, even on a matter of urgency.
In addition to the mansiones , some taverns offered accommodations as well as food and drink ; one recorded tab for a stay showed charges for wine, bread, mule feed, and the services of a prostitute. Roman provinces traded among themselves, but trade extended outside the frontiers to regions as far away as China and India. The main commodity was grain. Also traded were olive oil, various foodstuffs, garum fish sauce , slaves, ore and manufactured metal objects, fibers and textiles, timber, pottery, glassware, marble, papyrus, spices and materia medica , ivory, pearls, and gemstones.
Though most provinces were capable of producing wine, regional varietals were desirable, and wine was a central item of trade. Shortages of vin ordinaire were rare. The major suppliers for the city of Rome were the west coast of Italy, southern Gaul, the Tarraconensis region of Spain, and Crete. Alexandria, the second-largest city, imported wine from Laodicea in Syria and the Aegean. At the retail level, taverns or specialty wine shops vinaria sold wine by the jug for carryout and by the drink on premises, with price ranges reflecting quality.
Inscriptions record different occupations in the city of Rome, and 85 in Pompeii. Work performed by slaves falls into five general categories: domestic, with epitaphs recording at least 55 different household jobs; imperial or public service; urban crafts and services; agriculture; and mining. Convicts provided much of the labour in the mines or quarries, where conditions were notoriously brutal. But there was little division of labour between slave and free in practice. The greatest number of common labourers were employed in agriculture: in the Italian system of industrial farming latifundia , these may have been mostly slaves, but throughout the Empire, slave farm labour was probably less important than other forms of dependent labour by people who were technically not enslaved.
Professional associations or trade guilds collegia are attested for a wide range of occupations, including fishermen piscatores , salt merchants salinatores , olive oil dealers olivarii , entertainers scaenici , cattle dealers pecuarii , goldsmiths aurifices , teamsters asinarii or muliones , and stonecutters lapidarii. These are sometimes quite specialized: one collegium at Rome was strictly limited to craftsmen who worked in ivory and citrus wood. Textile and clothing production was a major source of employment.
Both textiles and finished garments were traded among the peoples of the Empire, whose products were often named for them or a particular town, rather like a fashion "label". Better ready-to-wear was exported by businessmen negotiatores or mercatores who were often well-to-do residents of the production centers. Finished garments might be retailed by their sales agents, who traveled to potential customers, or by vestiarii, clothing dealers who were mostly freedmen; or they might be peddled by itinerant merchants.
In Egypt, textile producers could run prosperous small businesses employing apprentices, free workers earning wages, and slaves. The fullers fullones and dye workers coloratores had their own guilds. Centonarii were guild workers who specialized in textile production and the recycling of old clothes into pieced goods. Economic historians vary in their calculations of the gross domestic product of the Roman economy.
The GDP per capita of Italy is estimated as 40 to 66 percent higher than in the rest of the Empire, due to tax transfers from the provinces and the concentration of elite income in the heartland. The chief Roman contributions to architecture were the arch and the dome. Even after more than 2, years some Roman structures still stand, due in part to sophisticated methods of making cements and concrete. Roman roads are considered the most advanced roads built until the early 19th century. The system of roadways facilitated military policing, communications, and trade. The roads were resistant to floods and other environmental hazards.
Even after the collapse of the central government, some roads remained usable for more than a thousand years. Roman bridges were among the first large and lasting bridges, built from stone with the arch as the basic structure. Most utilized concrete as well. The largest Roman bridge was Trajan's bridge over the lower Danube, constructed by Apollodorus of Damascus, which remained for over a millennium the longest bridge to have been built both in terms of overall and span length.
The Romans built many dams for water collection, such as the Subiaco Dams, two of which fed the Anio Novus, one of the largest aqueducts of Rome. They built 72 dams just on the Iberian peninsula, and many more are known across the Empire, some still in use. Several earthen dams are known from Roman Britain , including a well-preserved example from Longovicium Lanchester.
The Romans constructed numerous aqueducts. A surviving treatise by Frontinus, who served as curator aquarum water commissioner under Nerva, reflects the administrative importance placed on ensuring the water supply. Raised stone channels on a precise grade relied on gravity to carry water from mountain springs along raised stone channels. After the water passed through the aqueduct, it was collected in tanks and fed through pipes to public fountains, baths, toilets, or industrial sites.
Roman aqueducts were built to remarkably fine tolerance, and to a technological standard that was not to be equaled until modern times. The Romans also made use of aqueducts in their extensive mining operations across the empire, at sites such as Las Medulas and Dolaucothi in South Wales. Insulated glazing or "double glazing" was used in the construction of public baths. Elite housing in cooler climates might have hypocausts, a form of central heating. The Romans were the first culture to assemble all essential components of the much later steam engine , when Hero built the aeolipile.
In the ancient world, a city was viewed as a place that fostered civilization by being "properly designed, ordered, and adorned. A focus of Augustan monumental architecture was the Campus Martius, an open area outside the city centre that in early times had been devoted to equestrian sports and physical training for youth. The Altar of Augustan Peace Ara Pacis Augustae was located there, as was an obelisk imported from Egypt that formed the pointer gnomon of a giant sundial. With its public gardens, the Campus became one of the most attractive places in the city to visit.
City planning and urban lifestyles had been influenced by the Greeks from an early period, and in the eastern Empire, Roman rule accelerated and shaped the local development of cities that already had a strong Hellenistic character. Cities such as Athens, Aphrodisias, Ephesus and Gerasa altered some aspects of city planning and architecture to conform to imperial ideals, while also expressing their individual identity and regional preeminence. In the areas of the western Empire inhabited by Celtic-speaking peoples, Rome encouraged the development of urban centers with stone temples, forums, monumental fountains, and amphitheatres, often on or near the sites of the preexisting walled settlements known as oppida.
Urbanization in Roman Africa expanded on Greek and Punic cities along the coast. The network of cities throughout the Empire coloniae , municipia , civitates or in Greek terms poleis was a primary cohesive force during the Pax Romana. Romans of the 1st and 2nd centuries AD were encouraged by imperial propaganda to "inculcate the habits of peacetime". As the classicist Clifford Ando has noted:. Most of the cultural appurtenances popularly associated with imperial culture— public cult and its games and civic banquets, competitions for artists, speakers, and athletes, as well as the funding of the great majority of public buildings and public display of art—were financed by private individuals, whose expenditures in this regard helped to justify their economic power and legal and provincial privileges.
Even the Christian polemicist Tertullian declared that the world of the late 2nd century was more orderly and well-cultivated than in earlier times: "Everywhere there are houses, everywhere people, everywhere the res publica , the commonwealth, everywhere life.
In the city of Rome, most people lived in multistory apartment buildings insulae that were often squalid firetraps. Public facilities—such as baths thermae , toilets that were flushed with running water latrinae , conveniently located basins or elaborate fountains nymphea delivering fresh water, and large-scale entertainments such as chariot races and gladiator combat—were aimed primarily at the common people who lived in the insulae. Similar facilities were constructed in cities throughout the Empire, and some of the best-preserved Roman structures are in Spain, southern France, and northern Africa.
The public baths served hygienic, social and cultural functions. Bathing was the focus of daily socializing in the late afternoon before dinner. Roman baths were distinguished by a series of rooms that offered communal bathing in three temperatures, with varying amenities that might include an exercise and weight-training room, sauna, exfoliation spa where oils were massaged into the skin and scraped from the body with a strigil , ball court, or outdoor swimming pool.
Baths had hypocaust heating: the floors were suspended over hot-air channels that circulated warmth. Mixed nude bathing was not unusual in the early Empire, though some baths may have offered separate facilities or hours for men and women. Public baths were a part of urban culture throughout the provinces, but in the late 4th century, individual tubs began to replace communal bathing.
Christians were advised to go to the baths for health and cleanliness, not pleasure, but to avoid the games ludi , which were part of religious festivals they considered "pagan". Tertullian says that otherwise Christians not only availed themselves of the baths, but participated fully in commerce and society. The domus was a privately owned single-family house, and might be furnished with a private bath balneum , but it was not a place to retreat from public life. Although some neighborhoods of Rome show a higher concentration of well-to-do houses, the rich did not live in segregated enclaves.
Their houses were meant to be visible and accessible. The atrium served as a reception hall in which the paterfamilias head of household met with clients every morning, from wealthy friends to poorer dependents who received charity. It was also the centre of family religious rites, containing a shrine and the images of family ancestors. The houses were located on busy public roads, and ground-level spaces facing the street were often rented out as shops tabernae.
In addition to a kitchen garden, or windowboxes in the insulae , townhouses typically enclosed a peristyle garden that brought a tract of nature, made orderly, within walls. The villa by contrast was an escape from the bustle of the city, and in literature represents a lifestyle that balances the civilized pursuit of intellectual and artistic interests otium with an appreciation of nature and the agricultural cycle.
Ideally a villa commanded a view or vista, carefully framed by the architectural design. It might be located on a working estate, or in a "resort town" situated on the seacoast, such as Pompeii and Herculaneum. The programme of urban renewal under Augustus, and the growth of Rome's population to as many as 1 million people, was accompanied by a nostalgia for rural life expressed in the arts. Poetry praised the idealized lives of farmers and shepherds. The interiors of houses were often decorated with painted gardens, fountains, landscapes, vegetative ornament, and animals, especially birds and marine life, rendered accurately enough that modern scholars can sometimes identify them by species.
The Augustan poet Horace gently satirized the dichotomy of urban and rural values in his fable of the city mouse and the country mouse, which has often been retold as a children's story. On a more practical level, the central government took an active interest in supporting agriculture. Producing food was the top priority of land use. Larger farms latifundia achieved an economy of scale that sustained urban life and its more specialized division of labor. Small farmers benefited from more local markets in towns and trade centers. Agricultural techniques such as crop rotation and selective breeding were disseminated throughout the Empire, and new crops were introduced from one province to another, such as peas and cabbage to Britain.
Maintaining an affordable food supply to the city of Rome had become a major political issue in the late Republic, when the state began to provide a grain dole annona to citizens who registered for it. The dole cost at least 15 percent of state revenues, but improved living conditions and family life among the lower classes, and subsidized the rich by allowing workers to spend more of their earnings on the wine and olive oil produced on the estates of the landowning class. The grain dole also had symbolic value: it affirmed both the emperor's position as universal benefactor, and the right of all citizens to share in "the fruits of conquest".
The annona , public facilities, and spectacular entertainments mitigated the otherwise dreary living conditions of lower-class Romans, and kept social unrest in check. The satirist Juvenal, however, saw " bread and circuses" panem et circenses as emblematic of the loss of republican political liberty:. The public has long since cast off its cares: the people that once bestowed commands, consulships, legions and all else, now meddles no more and longs eagerly for just two things: bread and circuses.
Most apartments in Rome lacked kitchens, though a charcoal brazier could be used for rudimentary cookery. Prepared food was sold at pubs and bars, inns, and food stalls tabernae, cauponae, popinae, thermopolia. Carryout and restaurant dining were for the lower classes; fine dining could be sought only at private dinner parties in well-to-do houses with a chef archimagirus and trained kitchen staff, or at banquets hosted by social clubs collegia. Frequenting taverns, where prostitutes sometimes worked, was among the moral failings that louche emperors and other public figures might be accused of.
Most people would have consumed at least 70 percent of their daily calories in the form of cereals and legumes. Puls pottage was considered the aboriginal food of the Romans. The basic grain pottage could be elaborated with chopped vegetables, bits of meat, cheese, or herbs to produce dishes similar to polenta or risotto. Urban populations and the military preferred to consume their grain in the form of bread. Mills and commercial ovens were usually combined in a bakery complex. By the reign of Aurelian, the state had begun to distribute the annona as a daily ration of bread baked in state factories, and added olive oil , wine, and pork to the dole.
The importance of a good diet to health was recognized by medical writers such as Galen 2nd century AD , whose treatises included one On Barley Soup. Views on nutrition were influenced by schools of thought such as humoral theory. In upperclass households, the evening meal cena had important social functions. The ideal number of guests for a dinner party convivium , "life-sharing" or "a living together" was nine. Guests were entertained in a finely decorated dining room triclinium , often with a view of the peristyle garden. Diners lounged on couches, leaning on the left elbow.
By the late Republic, if not earlier, women dined, reclined, and drank wine along with men. Roman literature focuses on the dining habits of the upper classes, and the most famous description of a Roman meal is probably Trimalchio's dinner party in the Satyricon , a fictional extravaganza that bears little resemblance to reality even among the most wealthy.
The poet Martial describes serving a more plausible dinner, beginning with the gustatio "tasting" or "appetizer" , which was a composed salad of mallow leaves, lettuce, chopped leeks, mint , arugula, mackerel garnished with rue, sliced eggs, and marinated sow udder. The main course was succulent cuts of kid, beans, greens, a chicken, and leftover ham, followed by a dessert of fresh fruit and vintage wine. The Latin expression for a full-course dinner was ab ovo usque mala , "from the egg to the apples," equivalent to the English " from soup to nuts. A book-length collection of Roman recipes is attributed to Apicius, a name for several figures in antiquity that became synonymous with " gourmet.
Luxury ingredients were brought by the fleet from the far reaches of empire, from the Parthian frontier to the Straits of Gibraltar. Refined cuisine could thus be moralized as a sign of either civilized progress or decadent decline. The early Imperial historian Tacitus contrasted the indulgent luxuries of the Roman table in his day with the simplicity of the Germanic diet of fresh wild meat, foraged fruit, and cheese, unadulterated by imported seasonings and elaborate sauces. Most often, because of the importance of landowning in Roman culture, produce—cereals, legumes, vegetables, and fruit—was considered a more civilized form of food than meat.
The Mediterranean staples of bread, wine, and oil were sacralized by Roman Christianity, while Germanic meat consumption became a mark of paganism, as it might be the product of animal sacrifice. Some philosophers and Christians resisted the demands of the body and the pleasures of food, and adopted fasting as an ideal.
Food became simpler in general as urban life in the West diminished, trade routes were disrupted, and the rich retreated to the more limited self-sufficiency of their country estates. As an urban lifestyle came to be associated with decadence, the Church formally discouraged gluttony, and hunting and pastoralism were seen as simple but virtuous ways of life. When Juvenal complained that the Roman people had exchanged their political liberty for "bread and circuses", he was referring to the state-provided grain dole and the circenses , events held in the entertainment venue called a circus in Latin.
The largest such venue in Rome was the Circus Maximus, the setting of horse races, chariot races, the equestrian Troy Game, staged beast hunts venationes , athletic contests, gladiator combat, and historical reenactments. From earliest times, several religious festivals had featured games ludi , primarily horse and chariot races ludi circenses.
Although their entertainment value tended to overshadow ritual significance, the races remained part of archaic religious observances that pertained to agriculture, initiation, and the cycle of birth and death. Under Augustus, public entertainments were presented on 77 days of the year; by the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the number of days had expanded to Circus games were preceded by an elaborate parade pompa circensis that ended at the venue.
Competitive events were held also in smaller venues such as the amphitheatre, which became the characteristic Roman spectacle venue, and stadium. Greek-style athletics included footraces, boxing, wrestling, and the pancratium. Aquatic displays, such as the mock sea battle naumachia and a form of "water ballet", were presented in engineered pools. State-supported theatrical events ludi scaenici took place on temple steps or in grand stone theatres, or in the smaller enclosed theatre called an odeum.
Circuses were the largest structure regularly built in the Roman world, though the Greeks had their own architectural traditions for the similarly purposed hippodrome. The Flavian Amphitheatre , better known as the Colosseum, became the regular arena for blood sports in Rome after it opened in 80 AD. The circus races continued to be held more frequently. The Circus Maximus could seat around , spectators, and the Colosseum about 50, with standing room for about 10, more. Many Roman amphitheatres, circuses and theatres built in cities outside Italy are visible as ruins today.
The local ruling elite were responsible for sponsoring spectacles and arena events, which both enhanced their status and drained their resources. The physical arrangement of the amphitheatre represented the order of Roman society: the emperor presiding in his opulent box; senators and equestrians watching from the advantageous seats reserved for them; women seated at a remove from the action; slaves given the worst places, and everybody else packed in-between. The crowd could call for an outcome by booing or cheering, but the emperor had the final say. Spectacles could quickly become sites of social and political protest, and emperors sometimes had to deploy force to put down crowd unrest, most notoriously at the Nika riots in the year , when troops under Justinian slaughtered thousands.
The chariot teams were known by the colors they wore, with the Blues and Greens the most popular. Fan loyalty was fierce and at times erupted into sports riots. Racing was perilous, but charioteers were among the most celebrated and well-compensated athletes. One star of the sport was Diocles, from Lusitania present-day Portugal , who raced chariots for 24 years and had career earnings of 35 million sesterces. Horses had their fans too, and were commemorated in art and inscriptions, sometimes by name. The design of Roman circuses was developed to assure that no team had an unfair advantage and to minimize collisions naufragia, "shipwrecks" , which were nonetheless frequent and spectacularly satisfying to the crowd.
The races retained a magical aura through their early association with chthonic rituals: circus images were considered protective or lucky, curse tablets have been found buried at the site of racetracks, and charioteers were often suspected of sorcery. Chariot racing continued into the Byzantine period under imperial sponsorship, but the decline of cities in the 6th and 7th centuries led to its eventual demise.
The Romans thought gladiator contests had originated with funeral games and sacrifices in which select captive warriors were forced to fight to expiate the deaths of noble Romans. Some of the earliest styles of gladiator fighting had ethnic designations such as " Thracian" or "Gallic. Throughout his year reign, Augustus presented eight gladiator shows in which a total of 10, men fought, as well as 26 staged beast hunts that resulted in the deaths of 3, animals.
To mark the opening of the Colosseum, the emperor Titus presented days of arena events, with 3, gladiators competing on a single day. Roman fascination with gladiators is indicated by how widely they are depicted on mosaics, wall paintings, lamps, and even graffiti drawings. Gladiators were trained combatants who might be slaves, convicts, or free volunteers. Death was not a necessary or even desirable outcome in matches between these highly skilled fighters, whose training represented a costly and time-consuming investment. By contrast, noxii were convicts sentenced to the arena with little or no training, often unarmed, and with no expectation of survival.
Physical suffering and humiliation were considered appropriate retributive justice for the crimes they had committed. These executions were sometimes staged or ritualized as reenactments of myths , and amphitheatres were equipped with elaborate stage machinery to create special effects. Tertullian considered deaths in the arena to be nothing more than a dressed-up form of human sacrifice. Modern scholars have found the pleasure Romans took in the "theatre of life and death" to be one of the more difficult aspects of their civilization to understand and explain.
The younger Pliny rationalized gladiator spectacles as good for the people, a way "to inspire them to face honourable wounds and despise death, by exhibiting love of glory and desire for victory even in the bodies of slaves and criminals". Some Romans such as Seneca were critical of the brutal spectacles, but found virtue in the courage and dignity of the defeated fighter rather than in victory—an attitude that finds its fullest expression with the Christians martyred in the arena.
Even martyr literature, however, offers "detailed, indeed luxuriant, descriptions of bodily suffering", and became a popular genre at times indistinguishable from fiction. In the plural, ludi almost always refers to the large-scale spectator games. The singular ludus , "play, game, sport, training," had a wide range of meanings such as "word play," "theatrical performance," "board game," "primary school," and even "gladiator training school" as in Ludus Magnus , the largest such training camp at Rome.
Activities for children and young people included hoop rolling and knucklebones astragali or "jacks". The sarcophagi of children often show them playing games. Ball games include trigon, which required dexterity, and harpastum, a rougher sport. Pets appear often on children's memorials and in literature, including birds, dogs, cats, goats, sheep, rabbits and geese. After adolescence, most physical training for males was of a military nature. The Campus Martius originally was an exercise field where young men developed the skills of horsemanship and warfare.
Hunting was also considered an appropriate pastime. According to Plutarch, conservative Romans disapproved of Greek-style athletics that promoted a fine body for its own sake, and condemned Nero's efforts to encourage gymnastic games in the Greek manner. Some women trained as gymnasts and dancers, and a rare few as female gladiators. The famous "bikini girls" mosaic shows young women engaging in apparatus routines that might be compared to rhythmic gymnastics.
Women in general were encouraged to maintain their health through activities such as playing ball, swimming, walking, reading aloud as a breathing exercise , riding in vehicles, and travel. People of all ages played board games pitting two players against each other, including latrunculi "Raiders" , a game of strategy in which opponents coordinated the movements and capture of multiple game pieces, and XII scripta "Twelve Marks" , involving dice and arranging pieces on a grid of letters or words.
A game referred to as alea dice or tabula the board , to which the emperor Claudius was notoriously addicted, may have been similar to backgammon , using a dice-cup pyrgus. Playing with dice as a form of gambling was disapproved of, but was a popular pastime during the December festival of the Saturnalia with its carnival, norms-overturned atmosphere. In a status-conscious society like that of the Romans, clothing and personal adornment gave immediate visual clues about the etiquette of interacting with the wearer.
Wearing the correct clothing was supposed to reflect a society in good order. The toga was the distinctive national garment of the Roman male citizen, but it was heavy and impractical, worn mainly for conducting political business and religious rites, and for going to court. Contrary to popular perception, the clothing Romans wore ordinarily was dark or colorful, and the most common male attire seen daily throughout the provinces would have been tunics, cloaks, and in some regions trousers. The study of how Romans dressed in daily life is complicated by a lack of direct evidence, since portraiture may show the subject in clothing with symbolic value, and surviving textiles from the period are rare.
The basic garment for all Romans, regardless of gender or wealth, was the simple sleeved tunic. The length differed by wearer: a man's reached mid-calf, but a soldier's was somewhat shorter; a woman's fell to her feet, and a child's to its knees. The tunics of poor people and laboring slaves were made from coarse wool in natural, dull shades, with the length determined by the type of work they did.
Finer tunics were made of lightweight wool or linen. A man who belonged to the senatorial or equestrian order wore a tunic with two purple stripes clavi woven vertically into the fabric: the wider the stripe, the higher the wearer's status. Other garments could be layered over the tunic. The Imperial toga was a "vast expanse" of semi-circular white wool that could not be put on and draped correctly without assistance.
In his work on oratory, Quintilian describes in detail how the public speaker ought to orchestrate his gestures in relation to his toga. In art, the toga is shown with the long end dipping between the feet, a deep curved fold in front, and a bulbous flap at the midsection. The drapery became more intricate and structured over time, with the cloth forming a tight roll across the chest in later periods.
The toga praetexta , with a purple or purplish-red stripe representing inviolability, was worn by children who had not come of age, curule magistrates, and state priests. Only the emperor could wear an all-purple toga toga picta. In the 2nd century, emperors and men of status are often portrayed wearing the pallium, an originally Greek mantle himation folded tightly around the body.
Women are also portrayed in the pallium. Tertullian considered the pallium an appropriate garment both for Christians, in contrast to the toga, and for educated people, since it was associated with philosophers. By the 4th century, the toga had been more or less replaced by the pallium as a garment that embodied social unity. Roman clothing styles changed over time, though not as rapidly as fashions today. In the Dominate, clothing worn by both soldiers and government bureaucrats became highly decorated, with woven or embroidered stripes clavi and circular roundels orbiculi applied to tunics and cloaks.
These decorative elements consisted of geometrical patterns, stylised plant motifs, and in more elaborate examples, human or animal figures. The use of silk increased, and courtiers of the later Empire wore elaborate silk robes. The militarization of Roman society, and the waning of cultural life based on urban ideals, affected habits of dress: heavy military-style belts were worn by bureaucrats as well as soldiers, and the toga was abandoned.
People visiting or living in Rome or the cities throughout the Empire would have seen art in a range of styles and media on a daily basis. Public or official art—including sculpture, monuments such as victory columns or triumphal arches, and the iconography on coins—is often analyzed for its historical significance or as an expression of imperial ideology. At Imperial public baths, a person of humble means could view wall paintings, mosaics, statues, and interior decoration often of high quality.
In the private sphere, objects made for religious dedications, funerary commemoration, domestic use, and commerce can show varying degrees of aesthetic quality and artistic skill. A wealthy person might advertise his appreciation of culture through painting, sculpture, and decorative arts at his home—though some efforts strike modern viewers and some ancient connoisseurs as strenuous rather than tasteful. Greek art had a profound influence on the Roman tradition, and some of the most famous examples of Greek statues are known only from Roman Imperial versions and the occasional description in a Greek or Latin literary source.
Despite the high value placed on works of art, even famous artists were of low social status among the Greeks and Romans, who regarded artists, artisans, and craftsmen alike as manual laborers.