Outer-Art, Vol. III: Prints, Outer-Sculptures, and Digital Works

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Known for his keen sense of—and respect for—the uncanny, Ray has carved a widely admired path that crisscrosses the arenas of Minimalism and Conceptual art, while continually pushing the boundaries of visual perception. Charles Ray also includes an original essay by the artist and installation photography. Though perhaps best known for his paintings, Cy Twombly — developed a singular body of sculpture over the course of his year career.

These sculptures are made from quotidian materials such as wood, paint, metal, and found objects, including plastic flowers, lampshades, and a makeshift seat, to which he applied a delicate and unifying layer of white paint. American sculptor Michael Heizer born was among the first artists to reject the white cube gallery space in favor of the open land and majestic vistas of the western United States. Michael Heizer also includes an interview with the artist, previously unpublished archival images, and extensive process and installation photography.

For nearly 50 years Japanese-born artist On Kawara 29, days devoted himself to a quiet practice of marking time, incrementally, via various methods and media. This catalogue marks the long-term exhibition of the Today triptych Moon Landing , , at Glenstone, and includes an original essay by Lynne Tillman, text by E.

Untitled is an immersive, multi-sensorial installation with diverse constituent parts: sinks with running water, darkened exterior pathways, a brightly-lit interior chamber, a hand-painted degree mural, and discrete sculptural elements made to appear like prison windows, boxes of rat bait, and bundles of newspaper.

Bourgeois was also a prolific writer, matching her sculptural language with reams of psychoanalytic musings on repression, symbolism, and material. To Unravel a Torment also brings together never-before-published diary entries by the artist, annotated by Bourgeois scholar Philip Larratt-Smith, a contribution by art historian Briony Fer, and extensive installation photography. This two-volume catalogue features works such as Ant Farm , , a living colony of ants sealed between two panes of glass; Pink Tons , , a four-ton cube of casted pink glass; and Gold Field , , a sheet of pure, annealed gold that measures a fraction of a millimeter thick.

This catalogue explores major works by the ground-breaking Minimalist artist Fred Sandback — , whose yarn installations are inseparable from their environments: the light and space that surround and complete them. Text by Mark Godfrey, Boris Groys. Peter Fischli born and David Weiss — collaborate to transform the stuff of ordinary life into a series of quizzical, whimsical, even disquieting encounters. Antarctica, The Empire of Whiteness Photolog.

Art in America

Hielo Fuego. Okeanos A photolog. Vietnam Regaining the Smile. Neutrosophic Environment. Number Theory. Neutrosophy, a new branch of philosophy. Absolute Theory of Relativity. Quantum Paradoxes. Neutrosophic Physics. Superluminal and Instantaneous Physics. Neutrosophic Theory of Evolution. Poly-Emporium Theory. Linguistic Paradoxes. Linguistic Tautologies. Neutropsychic Personality. The differences between the two perspectives were confirmed both by subjective human judgements and objective analysis by computer modelling. While stereoscopic versions with colours altered to match more closely were presented both as anaglyphs, and as side-by-side images for parallel free fusion , no data on perceived depth were provided.

Although the original Louvre version was also used in this study, the restored version offers an enhanced chance of stereoscopic depth due to the greater similarity of colour palette. We use both versions of the Chimenti images ink-wash and woodcut and various combinations of Mona Lisa images. In addition to the basic pairing of the Prado and the original Louvre versions, subjects also rated rectangular sections of this binocular image showing only the hands, or the face. Stereoscopic effects are hypothesised for all of these image pairs.

This version will inevitably include some differences from the original Louvre version and may produce a degree of binocular rivalry, but as a direct copy rather than a version of the subject produced from a different viewpoint , this binocular pair should not be expected to generate any stereoscopic depth.

Introduction

The effective simulation of stereoscopic depth is dependent on many factors including the appropriate matching of the two monocular half-images. Incorrect matches may serve to degrade stereoscopic cues when they are present but may also introduce disparities in binocular images that, in reality, have none. For example, an incorrect rotational alignment may reduce the ease with which a genuinely stereoscopic image can be fused and greatly degrade the quality of the depth percept.

However, the same misalignment would introduce a depth gradient in a binocular image of a flat vertical line, for example.

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Similar problems can be encountered with differences in shear or image width differences in aspect ratio. Although stereoscopic photographs can be aligned using automatic image matching software, correcting for problematic differences in half-image size, rotation, and position, this process is less reliable for sfumato style artistic works such as the Mona Lisa , which lack clear edges.

For this reason, where necessary, stereoscopic alignment was performed manually by stereophotographers with decades of experience of stereoscopic alignment, allowing adjustments of relative size, vertical and horizontal position, and rotation only. In addition, even when they are geometrically appropriate, the inclusion of very large disparities leads to diplopia double vision and an impoverished depth percept, in addition to feelings of discomfort while viewing.

In this study, we were keen to ensure that all images included horizontal disparities that were smaller than either of these values, ensuring maximal viewing comfort and favourable conditions for the appreciation of stereoscopic depth.

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In evaluating the stereoscopic effects, it is essential to control for the influence of monocular depth cues such as occlusion, shadow, and perspective mentioned earlier and any other monocular sources of depth information , which are expected to be present. In addition, when assessing subjective reports of perceived depth, it is important to control for the possibility of placebo effects. It is entirely possible that the experience of binocular differences unrelated to depth may produce an unusual percept that may cause an observer to give unreliable reports of exaggerated depth.

For these reasons, it is not appropriate to use the monocular half-images whether presented to one eye alone, or whether the same image is simultaneously presented to both eyes, as in a synoptic image as control stimuli. Effective stereoscopic art—especially works depicting recognisable real-world as opposed to abstract scenes—would be expected to include both monocular and binocular depth cues.

While monocular cues are effective regardless of how many eyes are being used for viewing, or which eye it is that does the viewing, the same cannot be said for stereoscopic depth cues. For stereoscopic images, binocular viewing is essential, and the stereo half-image that is seen by the left versus the right eyes is crucial. In the appropriate configuration, the pattern of binocular disparities in the images is consistent with those seen in real-world viewing, and convincing depth is effortlessly perceived.


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While the patterns of binocular disparities specify a world turned inside out, monocular cues such as occlusion, shadow, and perspective continue to specify the same depth as in the stereoscopic situation. This produces cue conflict: a perceptual battle between two competing sets of depth signals that results in an impression of reduced rather than inverted depth, accompanied by feelings of visual discomfort and percepts of incoherent depth Jastrow, ; Zajac, , presumably due to differences in relative strength of monocular and binocular cues in different image regions.

Assuming that there are significant binocular disparity signals in a given pair of stereoscopic half-images, this allows us to make very different predictions of perceived depth for stereoscopic versus pseudoscopic stimuli. While the monocular and binocular cues should be concordant for stereoscopic presentations, producing vivid and coherent perceived depth, for pseudoscopic situations the cues will be discordant, resulting in an incoherent and reduced-depth percept. Here, a difference between depth ratings in the stereoscopic versus pseudoscopic conditions reveals the presence of significant binocular disparity cues.

However, if binocular disparity signals are absent, then only monocular cues remain. Given that these cues are unchanged by reversal, in such cases the same depth and coherence ratings would be predicted for stereoscopic and pseudoscopic images. Hence, in this study, the dependent variable of interest is the difference in ratings between stereoscopic and pseudoscopic presentations. Given the likely presence of monocular depth cues in each image, and that they are preserved regardless of which eye views the left or right half-image, differences between stereoscopic and pseudoscopic ratings are not expected to approach the maximal values.

Nevertheless, any score significantly different from zero would denote a genuine stereoscopic contribution. Participants wore their best optical corrections beneath their stereoscopic filter glasses where necessary. Each gave informed consent before testing commenced. While detailed measurements of cross talk were not taken, monocular inspection through the polarising glasses revealed no visible trace of the contralateral image. From this distance, the 0. Pairs of half-images from potential stereoscopic art works were selected from various online resources and downloaded at the highest available resolution.

Two examples of these images are shown in Figure 10 Train and Figure 11 River. Stimulus alignment was performed using automatic processes in stereoscopic photo manipulation software StereoPhoto Maker wherever possible, using adjustments of relative image size, horizontal and vertical position, and rotation only. Onscreen parallax was never greater than 1.

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During debriefing, no participants mentioned any experience of diplopia. Before data collection, participants were familiarised with the display and apparatus by viewing some examples of stereoscopic art in which one of the monocular views had been created by copying the original image and introducing disparities in certain areas of the image, along with some stereoscopic photographs that had been processed in Adobe Photoshop to simulate an artistic appearance in the same way as the paradigm check images above.

Pseudoscopic images were also shown to the observers to familiarise them with the reduced and incoherent depth, and the slight visual discomfort that these images can produce. During this phase, participants were encouraged to scrutinise the image and describe their depth percepts to the experimenter. A short practice session followed, involving five stereoscopic images not included in the main experiment, and their pseudoscopic equivalents. In this session, participants followed the same procedure as the experiment proper.

The order of image presentation was randomised for each participant. The first rating was of the degree of depth within the image, as an integer from 0 to 10 inclusive. To allow comparison of images in which the magnitude of simulated depth can vary extensively, participants were encouraged to give a high rating if the depth appeared compelling and appropriate to the scene, not just if the depth appeared extensive. Next, participants were asked to make a rating of depth coherence, considering whether there is consistency between the apparent depths of various aspects of the image i.

In particular, when rating the Mona Lisa images, participants were asked to make these judgements concerning the depth in the main subject herself, ignoring any percept of depth between the image and the background. For each of images under investigation, depth and coherence ratings were considered separately. Data are presented in terms of the difference between ratings for stereoscopic and pseudoscopic versions, averaged across observers. In addition, the results of paired t tests between stereoscopic and pseudoscopic scores are reported. To validate the logic and procedure of the study, subjects rated geometrically consistent stereoscopic photographs that had been manipulated using Photoshop to simulate artistic brush or pen strokes.

These results confirm the effective simulation of depth in our binocular set up and confirm the utility of our experimental paradigm in establishing the presence of genuine and coherent stereoscopic depth when it is present. Although significant, these effects were hardly impressive. On closer inspection of the half-images, it becomes clear that a geometrical inconsistency is present.

Introduction

While the bottom section of the structure both left and right sides shows considerable relative disparity between the front and rear corners, the central upper portion features a smaller relative disparity, despite these two sections appearing continuous in each monocular half-image see Figure 6 anaglyph. Figure 14 displays the results for full Mona Lisa images.

edutoursport.com/libraries/2019-11-30/695.php In sum, contrary to the claims of Carbon and Hesslinger , , there is no evidence of stereoscopic depth in any version of the Mona Lisa figures. The single marginally significant result identified here refers to the coherence of perceived depth in an image lacking stereoscopic depth. As such this result is most sensibly interpreted as a Type I error.

At this stage, the results may appear underwhelming, given that so few of the images appear to contain significant stereoscopic structure. It is noteworthy that, of the images tested, only the paradigm check images created from relatively objective stereoscopic photographs, featuring consistent geometry and the Wheatstone Arch a simple line drawing which appears to have been constructed with the aid of a straight edge have proven to be effective. When significant artistic influence is involved, as in the sketches of Chimenti or the paintings of Leonardo plus apprentice?

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